in 1798, Napoleon invaded … Ottomans appealed to Britain to drive him out. They did in exchange for control over Egypt … lots of British troops around
fast forward to American Civil War. Huge cotton shortage as a result … much of Europe turns to Egypt for cotton. Egypt makes a shitload of money, but neglects food production … again needs Britain to bail them out. Also the construction of the Suez Canal meant big debts to European banks
1882 - British move in. Egypt becomes a protectorate until 1952
'Take a look at countries where the government makes its money from natural resources instead of human labor–Saudi Arabia, Russia, Iran. Look at the money and effort those governments spend making sure their people don’t rebel. What will those countries look like when repression starts getting cheaper and cheaper? And why will America and Europe and East Asia be different? Isn’t a nation where the rich can get everything they need from robots essentially suffering from the same “resource curse” as Saudi Arabia?’
interesting point. never thought about it like that. ‘resource curse’ … is this why countries w/ big natural resources (venezuela, iraq, s africa etc) are unstable?? because the rulers can just fuck with the population??
'This sounds like nothing more than a fun science fiction story, but why shouldn’t this happen? Human civilization was somewhat like this for most of our history—aristocrats feasting in their manor houses, half-starved peasants toiling in the fields. What liberated us? It might have been the printing press, or capitalism, or the sailing ship. But it might have been the gun. And if it was the gun that liberated us, then we should be very worried. Because when the Age of the Gun ends, the age of freedom and dignity and equality that much of humanity now enjoys may turn out to have been a bizarre, temporary aberration.’
anyway the Age of the Gun is almost over; the Age of the Drone is coming: http://qz.com/185945/drones-are-about-to-upheave-society-in-a-way-we-havent-seen-in-700-years/
Traces of nimbyism. But still important. For me the issue isn’t the skyline (but then I’m young and have grown up with the new, changing skyline) but the rents and targeted advertising towards foreign investors
Balkans: fought over by three empires: Russian, Austro-Hungarian and ottoman
Serbia had thrown off ottomans. Established independent Slav state. Nationalism etc
Now wanted to remove Austro Hungarian influence from Bosnia
Create big Slav state: Yugoslavia
Franz Ferdinand wanted devolution: giving more power to national minorities
Germany didn’t consider the consequences of supporting austriahungary. Didn’t think Russia would go to war (fear of internal revolution)
NB: fortress opposite Belgrade … First shots of ww1 fired!
Escalation caused by the army’s autonomy from politicians(esp Germany)?
Britain: not attacked or bound by treaties
BUT wanted to protect foreign trade and Empire! Empire in Asia & Africa maintained with French & Russian help
AND didn’t want a strong Germany dominating European trade
'Fire is hugely symbolic in a lot of religions. It has a traditional association with purity - burning away the impurities and so forth, as well as always “ascending toward heaven” as the Zoroastrians would phrase it. It's also both critical to human survival and technological advancement, but was also very complex conceptually for traditional cultures to wrap their minds around the nature of. As a result, you see a lot of mystical associations with it across the board, and that includes Christianity. Incidentally, the whole “Lake of Fire” idea for Hell probably has its basis in Ancient Egypt, specifically the Book of Gates, and other religions in the region have numerous fire-themed elements going on to various degrees. It's pretty universal and also makes sense if you think about what fire would be like to a superstitious and pre-industrial civilization.'
Getting bored of people making the lazy comparison between gods and superheroes
Or Darren aranofsky saying Noah was the original superhero
They’re clearly different! Superheroes are an American, twentieth century creation, invented for children. Sure they can be seen as a modern interpretation of gods/godlike figures, but the ancient Greeks did not look at their gods the same way we look at superheroes.
Maybe the key difference is beliefs. With the exception of Grant Morrison, no one believes superheroes are real
Also the origin of the superhero is the detective/costumed crime fighter. Superman was not the first superhero; superheroes did not begin with supernatural godlike powers
Superheroes are not myths, not parables, they’re entertainment !
General alcazar in Tintin- name inspired by Franco, ‘hero of the alcazar?’ Liberated the prison in Toledo from republican forces, 1936. General alcazar was also rebelling against the government. Happened 1936 - when broken ear was being published - herge probably took the name straight from the news
Was thinking about Jedi knights, and about how they were a monolithically good social order … And about real knights, how they were very complicated, revered, existed for a variety of reasons, were involved in the crusades etc … So complex! Weird
So yeah I guess films are a simplified version of real life! Weird!
had limited contact with the “southern barbarians” - as Europeans sailed to Japan through the South Sea. were vaguely aware of foreign technological/social advances
Dutch had an enclave in Nagasaki harbour
'closed country' policy meant not only keeping foreigners out - but keeping Japanese in! Restrictions on shipbuilding
John Manjiro aka John Mung - one of the first Japanese to visit USA.
went to America, served on a whaling ship, California goldrush 1849, etc. returned to Japan 1851
Japanese waters - ripe for whaling! Americans wanted to use Japanese ports to restock, resupply, trade etc. Apart from commerce, Perry spoke in terms of spreading civilization to a backwards people. There was also an idea of spreading Christianity to the heathen. An extension of Manifest Destiny!? USA had already reached the shores of the Pacific …
'black ships' - named for their hulls, or for the clouds of smoke from their engines
July 1853 - Commodore Perry presents treaty to Japanese
(Emperor had no power at this time - Shogun in charge)
March 1854 - Perry returns. His demands are met. The beginning of the Opening of Japan to the West!
‘This was, after all, an unusually concentrated face-to-face encounter between a fundamentally white, Christian, and expansionist “Western” nation and a reclusive and hitherto all-but-unknown “Oriental” society. It was also a moment during which each side produced hundreds of graphic renderings not only of the alien foreigner, but of themselves as well. It is tempting, and indeed fascinating, to ask which side was more “realistic” in its renderings—but this really misses the point. For it is only by seeing the visual record whole, in its fullest possible range and variety, that we can grasp how complex and multi-layered these interactions really were.’
oh man there’s more. oh boy
Westerners were known as ‘blue-eyed barbarians’, ‘hairy barbarians’, and the Dutch, and by extension all Westerners, as ‘red-hairs’. Could explain Perry’s blue eyes in this woodcut:
or ferocious figures in woodblocks such as monsters were sometimes stigmatised by being given blue eyeballs?
Perry and other Westerners were depicted as goblins, and/or very hairy!
Text: ‘True portrait of Perry, envoy of the Republic of North America. His age is over sixty, complexion yellow, eyes slanted upwards, nose impressive, lips red as if rouged. His hair is curled like rings and mixed with gray. He wears three gold rings. His uniform is white wool with raised crests woven in gold….’
A woodblock print … a popular medium. Not like more realistic ‘fine’ art.
The face on the back, while it looks monstrous and intimidating, was probably not a comment on the monstrousness of the Americans. It was Japanese tradition to put scary faces on the backs of their vessels to ward off evil spirits
An image of a public bath proved controversial. It was repulsive to Western Christians to see men, women and children bathing together
by William Heine
There’s something too romanticised about these Western images. they’re so divorced from reality … this is a fascinating time, two completely different cultures meeting, and what a fantastic opportunity to give a true account of the alien society … but they fucked it up! it almost makes me annoyed. why couldn’t I have been there? or someone better than this guy:
I mean they’re cool. But not a good representation of what it must have been like … I find the lithographs from daguerrotypes far more interesting. I’m trying to feel what a totally alien world it must have been, what a jarring experience for both sides, these two cultures coming together … but these engravings totally fail to express any of that
The graveyard one is actually pretty good. Makes it seem alien. The MIT article describes them as ‘dreamlike’, and that’s as good a description as any
Maybe there’s no tension because the Americans felt none? They were clearly more powerful than the Japanese, and had no reason to be fearful. They were not having their homeland invaded!
It would be very nice if there were a God who created the world and was a benevolent providence, and if there were a moral order in the universe and an after-life; but it is a very striking fact that all this is exactly as we are bound to wish it to be
romanian immigrant! funny that the biggest illustrated documentors of the american C20th (him, Steadman) were outsiders
obsessed with documentation: passports, diplomas, etc. loved faking them, faking signatures. did this stem from childhood obsession? or from his battle to escape Europe (Italy by way of Spain) in the late 1930s?
his obsession with calligraphy realted to ‘the intimate relationship between consciousness adn motor expression’; just as a signature describes something of the identity of the person behind it, so the paintings of the best Abstract Expressionists were made with their whole bodies, ‘according to their kinetic system, their muscular system’
loved travelling. to document places visually, so as to be able to draw them later for commissions … drew small town American architecture
went to Brazil, came back everyone expecting him to talk about the politics, the art, the climate: but his favourite thing he saw was a chicken that had scraped against a freshly painted fence; a green chicken
some key preoccupations:
'iconic architecture; open public space, its character defined by the habits of a people rather than law or business; the mingling of regimes'
difference between note taking and the final thing:
'drawing is much like writing. A good writer is a good editor. You don't have to correct yourself constantly, but sometimes you have to decide to do this and not that'.
Decided to stop fiddling around with the story. It’s not gonna be perfect, I will fiddle around with it for ages, etc etc
Had a crit Saturday 23rd nov, was interesting but went on for ages. I was last, nick and Rosie (the people who I know know about comics) had gone to lunch, nicks birthday. Presented my stuff … People had not much to say. Oh well
Talked to Chris about it, what’s important in the story, themes etc. he suggested emphasising the things that are unexpected … Eg the priest blessing the planes as they take off. Ritualising it, repeating it. And the fact that they ride bikes everywhere … He said he pictures loads of panels of bike wheels spinning up close
Rosie is obsessed with the idea of work being personal. I told her about the comic, about DiPalma being looked after and hidden by the priest, she said it was interesting I was doing a comic about waiting/being in purgatory when I was in a period of waiting myself … I disagree. I don’t think the story has any relation to me at all
The next one will. Great great uncle in the Great War.
Anyway, just draw market garden as I’ve Already written it basically
In the late 16th century the area now known as East Frisia and Emsland and the people that lived there were referred to as “Muffe”. At the time that the Netherlands were by far the richest country in the whole of Europe, and these people were looked down upon greatly by the Dutch. The area of Western Lower Saxony was at that time very poor and a good source for many Dutch people looking for cheap labour. The inhabitants of this region were known to be rather reserved and were often described as “grumpy”, “rude" and "unsophisticated" by the Dutch. Later the term was used to describe the whole of Germany, which, at the time, wasn’t much better off economically than Western Lower Saxony, mainly due to the various wars waged on its territory by foreign powers. The term seemed to have died out around 1900 but returned following the German invasion of the Netherlands in 1940.
A popular humorous (but false) etymology of the word “mof" by the Dutch is that it is actually a German abbreviation meaning “Menschen ohne Freunde" ("people without friends”).
In Frisian (minority) language and Gronings dialect the word poep or poebe is used, as well as poepelân (Fr.), poepenlaand (Gr.) for Germany itself. In Gronings and Dutch poep means faeces, though the word does not seem to originate from that. A theory is that when Bernhard von Galen and his Westphalian troops arrived at Groningen in the 17th century to conquer the city, they used the word “Puppe” (meaning puppet). The people from Groningen laughed about that because it sounds exactly like poebe, which means faeces. Another theory is that it originates from that same era, but from the word Bube, being a fondle word for boy. From the city of Groningen it spread out into the province of Groningen and the border region with Drenthe.
In the Dutch language the word “Oosterbuur” (Eastern neighbour) nearly always refers to the German people or Germany itself, as Germany and the Germans are located to the East of the Netherlands and Belgium. Similarly, the Flemish refer to the Dutch as “Noorderburen” (Northern Neighbours) and the Dutch use “Zuiderburen” (Southern neighbours) for the Belgians.
Used in the Netherlands in parts of the Limburg and in the East of the Netherlands, meaning ‘Prussian’.
Also a major hero: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_Bernhard_of_Lippe-Biesterfeld
'By 1944, Prince Bernhard became Commander of the Dutch armed forces. After the liberation of the Netherlands, he returned with his family where he became active in the negotiations for the German surrender. He was present during the armistice negotiations and German surrender in Hotel de Wereld (“The World Hotel”) in Wageningen in The Netherlands on 5 May 1945, where he refused to speak German.’
got some ancestor names and info from Grandpa at the weekend. turns out his Great-Uncle Willy stayed in Australia after Uncle Jon fished him out of the bush and got him back on his feet … which makes it feasible that he did work on Old Parliament House in Canberra. but anyway we can look at this more at Christmas: Market Garden comes first.
“Luck is a goddess not to be coerced and forcibly wooed by those who seek her favours. From such masterful spirits she turns away. But it happens sometimes that, if we put our hand in hers with the humble trust of a little child, she will have pity on us, and not fail us in our hour of need.”—P G Wodehouse
Allied military currency in France - gambled with in run up to d-day - known to American troops as ‘cigar coupons’
Soldier puts rock w/hole in it on dog tag chain … To remind him of England …?
“Never give in. Never give in. Never, never, never, never—in nothing, great or small, large or petty—never give in, except to convictions of honour and good sense. Never yield to force. Never yield to the apparently overwhelming might of the enemy.”
― Winston Churchill, Never Give In!: The Best of Winston Churchill’s Speeches
If you will not fight for right when you can easily win without blood shed; if you will not fight when your victory is sure and not too costly; you may come to the moment when you will have to fight with all the odds against you and only a precarious chance of survival. There may even be a worse case. You may have to fight when there is no hope of victory, because it is better to perish than to live as slaves.
You ask, What is our policy? I will say; “It is to wage war, by sea, land and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can give us: to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in the dark lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy.” You ask, What is our aim? I can answer with one word: Victory—victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory however long and hard the road may be; for without victory there is no survival.
We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and the oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.
Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fall, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science.
Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth lasts for a thousand years, men will still say, “This was their finest hour!”
Ah great stuff
Generalleutenant Reichert, watching the invasion fleet open fire from the shore: ‘the whole horizon appeared to be a solid mass of flames’
"The crew of LUCKY PENNY, except for Navigator 2nd Lt. William L. Reese, who was "borrowed" to fly on the 853rd Squadron lead plane, were all killed 8 Jun 1944 at their airbase at Metfield, England. They had aborted their mission with a feathered No. 1 engine and after returning to the airbase, circled the field three times with a full load of fuel and bombs, lost control as they attempted to land and crashed on the field. SSgt. Lester J. Datthyn (Tail Gunner) was not in the crew photo, but was also killed in the crash. William L. Reese (Navigator) was later killed 26 Nov 1944 on the raid over Misbach.”
‘“During breakfast Eddy remarked, ‘This is my last mission, one way or another.’”
A mid-air collision that occurred as the aircraft flew through cloud layers to assemble above the overcast skies claimed the lives of 16 of the 20 crewmen. Maceyra was among those killed.
“Those brave men were all young … all trained for a job performed well, under trying conditions. All were untested, living out their destiny day by day. They are now all gone. They did not go unwept. It is for us to see they do not go unhonored nor unsung.”’
'He attended navigator/bombardier school at Deming Army Airfield in New Mexico and was then sent to Tonopah Army Air Field in Nevada where he was assigned to a B-24 bomber crew.
“We flew low-level missions at about 100 to 200 feet and the gunners would shoot at cactus. Sometimes they got excited and put holes in the farmers’ water tanks,” he said, laughing.’
It was considered bad luck to volunteer for a mission
Supplies for airborne troops were in wicker baskets, most in the bomb bay, some in the ball turret hole
Sterlings, Halifaxes and c-47s towed the gliders
Shots of whiskey when they finished missions
Moved to north pickenham 15th, 16th and 17th August 1944. Didn’t change tail markings (green w/horizontal white stripe) to the markings previously associated w/ the 492nd (the “hard luck” group: white w/ diagonal black stripe). That marking had a reputation with he Luftwaffe, and bad luck
Ice cream for dinner, where did they get t? Test flight at 24,000 feet, made it up there
Cold on truck on way back from mission, popped open parachutes and wrapped up in them
‘Scarecrows’ - huge incandescent explosions. Were they really German flak rounds designed to look like an exploding plane and demoralise allied troops, or was this a myth propagated by bomber command? Were they actually just planes with a full load of bombs/flares exploding?
Dude got airsick on first mission, took off oxygen mask to puke, then passed out. Nearly died
I hope I never have to spend another birthday away from my wife and children
“The CQ (?) woke us at 0400, breakfast at 0430, briefing at 0530, “lets go now, hitler has a party planned for you today!” Someone threw a shoe at him as he ducked out the door” frank Lewis, radio operator, ray trapp crew
Chuck Yeager was flying mustangs with the 357 fighter group at this time!
"A Catholic priest visited us this evening and asked if anyone wanted Confession and Holy Communion. I nearly went but since the war started, my belief in a God had suffered a reverse. I couldn’t equate all the killing by two sides, both of whom claimed to be a Christian society. I was, as Gary Cooper would says ‘kinda mixed up inside’."